A comune of its province, located at the southern entrance of the Strait of Messina, is to this day called 'Scaletta Zanclea'. See also List of traditional Greek place names. Sorge nei pressi dell'estrema punta nordorientale della Sicilia Capo Peloro sullo Stretto che ne porta il nome.
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Probably the most influential history of the Jesuits of this period was written by Enrico Rosa, S. The rise in scientific historical interest in Jesuit studies seemed to stagnate after the ascent to power of Mussolini — in To judge from the available bibliographies, the annual number of publications remained on roughly the same level during —45 compared to the period — Under the new levels of control of the fascist regime, debates were muted. However, it is as if the divides between Jesuit historians and scholars of liberal and socialist orientation had deepened and stiffened.
On the one side Jesuit historians continued to publish through a broader variety of lay and clerical journals and presses. The judgment of Paolo Dezza, S. On the other side of the chasm, the Jesuit order was seen as exponent of anti-liberalism.
This led socialist philosopher and later member of the Italian resistance, Alfredo Poggi, supported by Luigi Credaro, former radical minister of education, to take aim of the Jesuits. In an analysis of the history of the Italian Jesuit educational policies, they argued that the Jesuits were now obtaining what they had been asking for since the mid-nineteenth century. In the critical period of renewed nation building after the Second World War, secular and clericals in Italy sensed an urge to revisit the studies of Italian unification and the Risorgimento.
Research into the history of the church and the Jesuits was revitalized, but scholarship continued to be polarized along very much the same ingrained trenches as before, although now scholars of socialist orientation took up a more defined position alongside the liberal and Catholic camps.
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The works of Catholic historians were motivated by a need to revise liberal historiography that had depicted the clericals as unpatriotic during the Risorgimento. In , Don Paolo Guerrini demonstrated to be well aware that his efforts were part of broader currents, attempting to place his work in the context of a larger upheaval in scholarship on the Risorgimento led among others by Alberto Ghisalberti. Guerrini argued that during the Risorgimento the Jesuits had been accused of being reactionaries by anti-clerical democrats, while in fact organizations affiliated to the Jesuits had acted patriotically.
Moreover, the priest and historian from Brescia compared the anticlerical democrats of the Risorgimento to contemporary communist agitators, suggesting the motifs for denouncing the Jesuits had been opportunistic in both cases. Thereby, he repositioned the Catholics towards the center of Italian nation building.
Other clerics and Catholic historians argued similarly that Jesuit influence had been positive for the fatherland and that opposition to liberal government during Italian unification had been justified by the anti-clerical politics of the Italian state. Historians of secular liberal and republican leanings continued to depict the Jesuits as the foremost opponents of the liberal and national movements in Italy.
Under the fresh impression of the victory of the Christian Democrats over the communists in the watershed national elections of , socialist and communist analysts of national identity formation began reading the agency of the Jesuits in a Marxist key. Thus, the Jesuits had used anti-socialism to counter liberalism and the lay state and contributed to marginalize socialism in Italy. It had been accompanied by social thought that went counter to both socialism and liberalism and thereby conserved Catholic concepts of economy, work and organization anticipating the modern welfare state.
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Studies of fascism and the role of the Catholics in the Second World War were conspicuously absent in the works of these generations of historians. Mario Colpo, S. The dangers inherent in totalitarianism necessitated extensive clarifications of the Catholic doctrine of personal rights. Much later he himself has been singled out as a voice critical of fascism within the clerical hierarchy. Meanwhile, in between the trenches analyses emerged by historians, whose views appear less polarized.
In line with the broader rise in social and cultural history, historical writings on the Italian Jesuits exploded into a much more varied landscape. Interest began to emerge in various social aspects of Jesuit life, including charity, economy, education and diffusion of ideas.
Already in the late s, researchers pointed at a shift in the focus of the Italian Jesuits from domestic politics towards the third world. The idea of the church as pluralistic seems to have fueled a series of studies by scholars identifying with the innovations of the Vatican Council into what was seen as pluralist tendencies of the church in the past.
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This led to revision both of modernist views and of the anti-modernism of the Jesuits. According to Lorenzo Bedeschi, the Jesuits had sometimes been judged too indiscriminately by contemporary modernists.
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This is particularly evident in three cases. The one is Antonio Rosmini, the others two priests, who broke with the Jesuit Order due to their too critical views on temporal power, Carlo Passaglia —87 and Carlo Curci. The new interest in Rosmini led to criticism of the Jesuits, who were considered to have been among his strongest opponents. And in the s, when the Christian Democrats rule in Italy began to show signs of crisis, they were seen as important models for the contemporary Italian church. However, he argued, the Jesuits had been under attack from the state and needed to defend themselves.
The revival of neo-Thomism in the nineteenth century continued to be a point of dispute. Scholars, most prominently Luciano Malusa, argued that the reestablishment of neo-Thomism as the official church doctrine had been promoted by Jesuits in Rome as a cultural program in order to defend an intransigent anti-modern worldview, and that this cultural battle had helped the Catholics gaining influence in political life in the twentieth century. The Second Vatican Council also left an immediate impact on the historical writings concerning the perception of other faiths.
Observers started debating the Catholic attitudes to the Jewish question on the background of what they saw as a major breakthrough in relations to Judaism. As earlier, secular researchers argued that the agency of the Jesuits had been fundamentally anti-progressive.
The Jesuits had been patriots, working towards the removal of the temporal power of the church. Their policies had been conducive of liberty and democracy and had helped preparing post-war Christian democratic society. The continued polarization between historians aligned with the order and the church and other researchers is perhaps most evident in the emerging scholarship on fascism and the Holocaust. On the one side, De Rosa downplayed synergies between the regime and the Jesuits and the church.
However, a new less polarized contemporary church historiography, dominated by scholars of Catholic cultural background without strict links to the Vatican, seemed to gain strength during the s and s. Roberto Sani among others analyzed the influence of the Jesuits on the church and political life in Italy.